Description: The Hs 293 A-1 has principally an aluminum,
stressed skin, spot welded structure. The forward portion of the fuselage is structurally
the bomb casing with an aluminum covering or fairing. Fastened to the rear of the bomb is a
vertical plastic beam (about 3/8 inch thick) which runs to, and is fastened to, the after
portion of the fuselage. The radio, and the associated gear for the controlling of the bomb
are mounted on either side of this plastic beam. On the after corner of this beam is mounted
a roller. The after portion of the fuselage is a stressed-skin, semimonoque structure with a
rail (for the aforementioned roller on the plastic beam) mounted on the top inside of the
structure. Quick disconnection fasteners are mounted at the connection between the rear of
the bomb fairing and the forward end of the rear fuselage to be quickly detached and rolled
off the bomb and plastic beam, giving quick and complete access to all the control gear. The
wing and tail are aluminum and of the usual built-up type.|
Aerodynamic Characteristics: The missile is controlled in roll
by normal type of ailerons on the trailing edge of the outer portion of the wing. The ailerons
also control the yaw effect. It is controlled in pitch by the normal type of control surfaces
on the trailing edge of the horizontal tail surface.
Control System: The control system consists of the following parts:
A. Receiving set E-230. This unit could use any one of the 18 channels, each of which were
100 kc apart in the band
between 48 and 49.7 mc/s and could be changed easily in the field to
satisfy the operation requirements for frequencies.
B. "Aufschalgerate" for damping and smoothing the receiver signals.
C. Three-phase AC gyro for stabilization in roll and yaw. It has a precission rate of 2 degrees per minute.
D. High resistance double potentiometer for proportioning the data.
E. 210-volt D.C. generator for the receiver.
F. A transformer with built-in relays to activate the aileron surface magnets.
G. Elevator mechanism with an "Oemiz" motor and potentiometer for returning the elevator to it's normal position.
H. An iron nickel plate battery of 24 volts with approximately 14 amp/hours.
This missile, because of the type of intelligence used, is limited to use in
good, clear weather and with air superiority. It is subject to jamming, and this, therefore,
may limit the use to targets where jamming equipment is not installed.
A joystick type of control was used in the parent aircraft. This control box made
use of a very clever cam arrangement which gave proportional control.
Warhead: The warhead was constructed of in one section of drawn
steel. The base plate was welded in position. The nose filling plug was threaded and held in
place by two set screws. A kopfring was welded to the nose just behind the nose plug. One
transverse fuze pocket was located aft of the suspension lug. A central exploder tube was
used in the explosive cavity to insure high order detonation of the warhead on impact with
Operation: Upon locating the target, the carrier aircraft makes
its approach to the trajectory distance, and in the last part of its dive, sets a course such
that the target can be seen 30 degrees to 60 degrees to the right of the course. Shortly
before release time and particularly at the moment of release, the carrier aircraft must be in
a horizontal position. At the time of release the aircraft must have a minimum speed of
334 kphr if the He 111 is used, and 400 kphr if the He 177 or the Do 217 are used.
The missile is released and directed to the target by the bombadier.
Immediately after release, the speed of the aircraft may be reduced, but the release altitude
and direction should be maintained for a period of approximately 10 seconds. After this
interval of time, it is not essential to maintain release altitude and course direction.
It is important that any change in flight course be done slowly and carefully so that the
target remains on the side of the bombadier during the entire flying time of the missile.
The field of view of the operator and the freedom of the carrier plane in approach vary
according to type of aircraft. In all carrier planes, there should be a field of view of
approximately 110 degrees to the right. The flying time of the Hs 293 A-1 should not be
greater than approximately 100 seconds.
Remarks: The Hs 293 is the outgrowth of the "Gustav Schwartz
Propellerwerke" glide bomb which was first designed in 1939. The further development of the
glide bomb by Henschel represents their first attempt at a radio controlled missle.
The original Schwartz design was a pure glide bomb guided on a straight
course by means of an automatic pilot. The method of attack entailed high altitudes for
the carrier aircraft in order that sufficient range could be attained and still be out
of antiaircraft fire.
Henschel took over the work of further developing this missile in early 1940,
and it was decided to use some form of propulsion for the missile so that attacks at low
altitude and increased range could be made. The Hs 293 A-1 was the first model to be used
operationally with the new motor.
The Hs 293 was first used in the Bay of Biscay. Launched by Do 217E-5s of II/KG 100 against destroyers.
Hs 293B: This was a wire-controlled version of the original radio-controlled series,
designed to be used in the event of a jamming of the radio control mechanism of the original
series of bombs. The Luftwaffe considered that up to 70 percent disturbance was permissible
before a change-over to the wire-controlled series would be necessary. Since these conditions
were never attained, the Hs 293B was never put into production.
Hs 293C: This missle was a modified version of the Hs 294 and had a detatchable warhead,
etc., in the same manner as the Hs 294, but a conventionally shaped body. The fuzes include
an impact fuze with a short delay to allow for penetration in cases where the missile struck
a ship above it's waterline, an impact fuze which detonated immediately on impact after it
entered the water, and a fuze operated by a spinner which detonated the missile after a
passage of 45 meters through the water. This subtype was designated the Hs 293C during it's
development stage, but when large scale production was to start, it was changed to the Hs 293
A-2, and was to replace the original radio-controlled series for general purpose against
Hs 293D: This was a projected type of missile to be fitted with a television camera in
the nose. The camera was designed to repeat data back to the missile controller. The camera
was designed to swing vertically and was aimed in the line of flight by a small wind vane on
the outside of the projectile. As the projectile was rudderless, and in theory should not yaw
in flight, there was no need to allow for any traverse in the camera mounting. About 20 of
these missiles were built and test flown, but the television gear proved to be unreliable,
and the project was abandoned.
Hs 293E: This was purely an experimental model built to try out a system of spoiler
controls to replace the conventional aileron mechanism. These controls were incorporated in
the final model of the Hs 293 A-2, but were never employed operationally, since by the time
the bomb was brought into large scalle production, the Luftwaffe had no aircraft available for
Hs 293F: This was a tailless missile which was never developed beyond the design phase.
Hs 293H: This missile was intended to be released and controlled in flight by one
aircraft and detonated by a second observing aircraft, which would be flying in position where
it would be easy to bserve the impact of the missile against the target. The project was
abandoned because it was felt that the detonating aircraft would be unable to remain directly
over the target long enough to carry out its function.
Hs 293 V6: This subtype was developed for launching from jet-propelled aircraft at
launching speeds up to 200 meters/second. This involved modification of the wing span of the
missile so that it could be carried within the undercarraige of the aircraft. The
Ar 234 aircraft
was to be used as the parent plane, however, these aircraft were not available in sufficient
numbers by wars end and the missile never progressed beyond the design stage.